Judith Rothschild was born in New York City in 1921. In high school, she studied art under the direction of Victor D’Amico, the head of the art department at the Fieldston School who later went on to run the art education program at the MoMA. She studied at Wellesley College and at Cranbrook Academy. Rothschild studied at the Art Students League with Reginald Marsh, at Stanley William Hayter, Hans Hofmann, and Karl Knaths. Her paintings shifted more toward abstraction in the early 1940s. In 1945, she became a member of the Jane Street group, which included artists Leland Bell, Nell Blaine, Jane Freilicher, and Larry Rivers. Her first solo exhibition was held at their space, Jane Street Gallery, in December 1945. She married the novelist Anton Myrer in 1947 and they lived in California, New York, and on Cape Cod. Rothschild continued to work abstractly throughout her career while she also collected art. Rothschild was a member and later president of the American Abstract Artists, editor of Leonardo magazine, and is well known for her philanthropic foundation aiding artist estates in their preservation of work and materials. Her work is included in the collections of MoMA, Metropolitan, Whitney, Metropolitan, Tate Modern, National Gallery of Art, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and Philadelphia Museum of Art.